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  • Writer's pictureProject STEMinist

Plant Anatomy

Plants are part of the kingdom Plantae. They are living organisms that convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy during photosynthesis.

Structural Divisions: ● Flower anatomy

-Calyx, Corolla, Androecium, and Gynoecium

● Leaf anatomy -Epidermis, stomata and Palisade cells

● Stem anatomy -Stem structure and vascular tissues, buds and shoot apex

● Fruit/seed anatomy -Structure of the Ovule, Seed, Pericarp and Accessory fruit

● Wood anatomy -Structure of the Bark, Cork, Xylem, Phloem, Vascular cambium, Heartwood and sapwood and branch collar ● Root anatomy - Structure of the Root, root tip, endodermis


  • Axil - angle between the upper side of the stem and a leaf, branch, or petiole

  • Axillary bud - bud that develops in the axil

  • Flower - reproductive unit of angiosperms

  • Flower stalk - structure that supports the flower

  • Internode - area of the stem between any 2 adjacent nodes

  • Lateral shoot (branch) - offshoot of the stem of a plant

  • Leaf - an outgrowth of a plant that grows from a node in the stem; primary function is to convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy (food) through the process of photosynthesis

  • Node - part of the stem of a plant from which a leaf, branch, or aerial root grows; each plant has many nodes

  • Petiole - a leaf stalk that attaches the leaf to the plant

  • Root - a plant structure that obtains water and dissolved minerals from the soil, stores energy, and provides support for the plant

  • Root cap - a structure at the ends (tips) of the roots that covers and protects the apical meristem (the actively growing region) of the root

  • Stem (a.k.a. the axis) - main support of the plant; carry water and food from place to place within the plant itself

- Outer layer = epidermis

- Inner layer = cortex

- Central zone =pith

  • Tap root - the main root of some plants; extends straight down under the plant

  • Terminal bud - a bud located at the apex (tip) of the stem; have a special tissue, called the apical meristem, which consists of cells that can divide indefinitely

BY: Richa Kuklani Sources: ant-anatomy

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